SAMPA-C (  Ver 1.0 released in Aug. 1999,  Ver. 2.0  released in  Mar. 2000)

(download Font ZCunsil4 to show IPA)
    SAMPA-C originally comes from SAMPA-X , which is a computer-readable transcription system for Standard Chinese. 

Consonents

PinYin

IPA

SAMPA-B

PinYin

IPA

SAMPA-C

b

p

p

z

ts

ts

p

pH

p_h

c

tsH

ts_h

m

m

m

s

s

s

f

f

f

zh

ts`

d

t

t

ch

t©H

ts_h`

t

tH

t_h

sh

©

s`

n

n

n

r

¸

z`

(a)n

n

_n

l

l

l

j

ts\

g

k

k

q

t»H

ts_h

k

kH

k_h

x

»

s\

h

x

x

 

?

?

ng

   Ð

N

 

 

 


vowels

PinYin IPA SAMPA-C
a § A
o o o
e °¤ @
i i i
u u u
ü y y
(zh)i Ÿ i`
(z)i ¡ i\
er Ä @`


 Phonological vowels:

Phoneme

Allophone

SAMPA-C

Phoneme

Allophone

SAMPA-C

PinYin

IPA

PinYin

IPA

a

A

a

a

i

i

i

i

A

a_"

I

I

§

A

j

j

Q

E

ï

Ÿ

i`

P

{

¡

         i\

o

o

o

o

u

u

U

U

      U 

U

u

u

u

u

w

        w

È

@

Ʋ

v\

e

°

°

7

ü

Y

y

y

e

e

á

H

E

E_r

er

Ä

Ä

@`

È

@

 

 

 

 

Phonological consonants:

Phoneme

Allophone

SAMPA-C

Phoneme

Allophone

SAMPA-C

PinYin

IPA

PinYin

IPA

b

p

p

p

z

ts

ts

ts

p

pH

pH

p_h

c

tsH

tsH

ts_h

m

m

m

m

s

s

s

s

f

f

f

f

zh

ts`

d

t

t

t

ch

t©H

t©H

ts`_h

t

tH

tH

t_h

sh

©

©

s`

n

n

n

n

r

¸

¸

z`

(a)n

n

n

_n

l

l

l

l

j

ts\

g

k

k

k

q

t»H

t»H

ts\_h

k

kH

kH

k_h

x

»

»

s\

h

x

x

x

 

 

 

 

ng

Ð

Ð

N

 

 

 

 

                 

Initials of SC:

Method of articulatory

place of articulatory

PinYin

IPA

SAMPA-C

examples




stops

labial

b

p

p

ba, bi, bu, bai,…

labiodental

 

 

 

 

dentalveolar

d

t

t

de, da, di, du, …

retroflex

 

 

 

 

dorsal

     

velar

g

k

k

ge, gu, ga,



aspirated
stops

labial

p

pH

p_h

po, pa, pu, pang, …

labiodental

 

 

 

 

dentalveolar

t

!tH

t_h

 

retroflex

       

dorsal

       

velar

k

kH

k_h

ke, ku, kong, kan kun,…

  

affrictives

labial

       

labiodental

       

dentalveolar

z

ts

ts

zi, zu, zou, za, …

retroflex

zh

ts`

zhi, zha, zhang,…

dorsal

j

ts\

ji, jv, jiang,…

velar

       

aspirated affricates

labial

       

labiodental

       

dentalveolar

c

tsH

ts_h

ci, ca, cong,… 

retroflex

ch

t©H

ts`_h

zhi, chu, cha, chou,…

dorsal

q

t»H

ts\_h

 

velar

       



nasals 

labial

m

m

m

ma, mi, mo, men,…

labiodental

       

dentalveolar

n

n

n

na, ni, nu, neng,…

retroflex

       

dorsal

       

velar

       




fricatives 

labial

       

labiodental

f

f

f

fa, fu, fou, fang,…

dentalveolar

s

s

s

si, su, sa, song,…

retroflex

sh

©

s`

shu, sha, shan,…

r

z\

ri, ru, re, ruan,…

dorsal

x

»

s\

xi, xia, xiang,…

velar

h

x

x

ha, he, hu, hun,…

  

laterals 

labial

       

labiodental

       

dentalveolar

l

l

l

la, li, lu, lang,…

retroflex

       

dorsal

       

velar

       

 

Finals of SC

methods of articulation

PinYin

IPA

SAMPA_C

EXAMPLES

 

  





   
open

a

A

a_"

ba, a, 

o

o

o

po, bo, fo,…

e

°

7

e, ke, ge, he, …

ai

aI

aI

ai, sai, shai,…

ei

ei

ei

fei, hei, …

ao

§U

AU

ao, hao, kao,…

ou

Èu

@U

ou, hou, fou,…

an

an

an

an, fan, kan, san,…

en

Èn

@n

en, 

ang

§Ð

AN

ang, pang, bang,…

eng

ÈÐ

@N

beng, peng, feng,…

i1(zi)

¡

i\

zi,ci,si

i2(zhi)

Ÿ

i`

zhi,chi,shi

  





stretched

i

i

i

Yi, ji, bi, ji, xi, …

ia

iA

ia_"

Ya, qia, xia, …

ie

iE

iE_r

Ye, qie, jie, pie,…

iao

i§U

iAU

Yao, qiao, xiao, …

iou

iÈu

i@U

 

ian

iQn

iE_n

Yan, qian, xian,…

in

in

i_n

Yin, jin, qin, xin,…

iang

i§Ð

iAN

Yang, xiang, qiang,…

ing

iN

Ying, xing, qing, …

iong

iUÐ

iUN

yong, xiong, qiong, …

 




 
round

u

u

u

wu, fu, gu, hu, ….

ua

uA

ua_"

wa, kua, hua, …

uo

uo

uo

wo, huo, guo, luo, duo,…

uai

uaI

uaI

wai, kuai, …

ui

uei

uei

wei, gui,…

uan

uan

ua_n

wan, duan, suan,…

uen

uÈn

u@_n

wen, fen, cen, men,…

uang

u§Ð

uAN

wang, huang, chuang,..,

ong

UN

hong, gong, dong,…

ueng

uÈÐ

u@N

weng, feng, seng,…

  

protruded

ü

y

y

yu, xv, …

üe

yE

yE_r

yue, que, xue,…

üan

yPn

y{_n

yan, xuan, quan, …

ün

yn

y_n

yun, 

 

Retrofelxed finals

methods of articulation

pinyin

IPA

SAMPA-C

EXAMPLES

 

  open

eir

Èr

@`

leir

ar

Ar

a`

par

or

or

o`

mor

er

°r

7`

ger

aor

§or

Ao`

daor

our

our

ou`

gour

angr

a!!‹r

a~`

gangr

engr

È!‹r

@~`

dengr

 

  stretched

ir

Èr

i@`

jir

iar

iar

ia`

iar

ier

iEr

Ie_o`

jier

iaor

i§or

iAo`

jiaor

iour

iour

iou`

qiur

iangr

ia!!‹r

i@~`

liangr

ingr

iÈ!‹r

i@~`

ingr

iongr

iu!‹r

iu~`

xiongr

 

    round 

 

 

ueir

uÈr

u@`

gueir

uair

uar

ua`

guair

uor

uor

uo`

uor

uangr

ua!!‹r

ua~`

kuangr

uengr

uÈ!‹r

u@`

uengr

ungr

u!‹r

u~`

kongr

 

portruded 

 

ür

yÈr

y@`

yur

üer

yEr

yE_r`

yuer

üanr

 yar

 ya`

yuanr

Sound changes in running speech

contents

IPA SAMPA-C

examples

centralized

e

_’’

 

voiceless

n!% 

_u

   n_u

voiced

!dŒ

_v

 

more rounded

 

_O

O_O

syllabic 

\

=

M=

pharyngealized

Øt/

_?\

A_?\

nasalization

a‹

~

 i~

insertion + N+
deletion - (i-)

Tones and silence:

contents

SAMPA-C

examples

        silence

sil

voiced silence

sil_v

neutral tone

ba_0

ba0

Tone 1

ba_1

ba1

Tone 2

ba_2

ba2

Tone 3

ba_3

ba3

Tone 4

ba_4

ba4

!