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岳暘:吴语杭州方言的语音学研究【语言学及应用语言学】

作者:岳暘 导师:胡方  来源:科研处  时间:2019-01-13

摘  要 

  本文是对吴语杭州方言的语音学研究,内容涉及元音与双元音、阻塞音的清浊对立、单字调的调类近似合并、儿缀等四个方面。12位母语发音人(6男6女)为本文提供了发音、声学数据。引言部分介绍杭州方言音系及相关基本情况、研究现状及研究意义;第一章通过单、双元音时间结构、谱特征、动态特征等方面探讨双元音的性质;第二章从塞音/塞擦音的VOT、塞音/塞擦音的持阻段时长、擦音的清化与时长、谱特征等四个角度讨论阻塞音的清浊对立;第三章分单字调概况与调类合并阶段两方面对杭州方言的单字调属性进行探讨;第四章探讨儿缀在语音与音系上的表现与作用。本文得到以下结论:

  杭州方言开音节单元音在声学元音图中呈现三角形分布。元音的声学分析表明,单元音拥有一个静态声学目标,而降峰双元音则拥有一个动态声学目标,应与单元音归为一类。升峰双元音则拥有两个声学目标,属于元音序列。

  杭州方言的塞音、塞擦音保持了清不送气、清送气、浊三重对立。但是,声学分析表明,VOT值并不能区分清、浊阻塞音。清浊对立体现在持阻段时长。同时,气声化在浊塞音后的元音段中贯穿始终,在浊塞擦音后的元音的前半段持续。与塞音、塞擦音相比,浊擦音[v z]保持了较多的浊音产出,同时,弱擦音[v]相比强擦音[z]保留了更多的浊音的产出。此外,声学上无法切分[ɦ]音段,但元音段的气声化与[ɦ]声母音节时长的特性证明了/ɦ/其自身的存在,也就是说,零声母、[h]、[ɦ]之间也是三重对立。

  杭州方言的调类正处于变化之中,其中,T1/T4组而言,产出有整体混同迹象而感知部分混同的阶段,T2/T5组而言,产出有少量混同迹象或混同趋势而感知可区分。年轻组被试产出数据的混同程度高且存在一定程度的感知混同。产出的调类变化方向不是双向趋近合并,而更趋向于一个调类保持不变而另一个调类向其靠拢。

  腭位图及舌位图确认,杭州方言的儿缀首先是一个舌尖-龈后边音[l̩]。同时,声学数据分析表明,杭州方言的儿缀[l̩]同时也带有卷舌色彩,因为它会引发前接音节元音末尾部分的r音化。与普通话不同的是,杭州方言的儿化不会导致音系上的音节重组。儿缀在儿缀词中保持着独立音节。而且,杭州方言的儿缀并不是一个轻音节,多音节儿缀词适用杭州方言的连读变调规则。但是,儿缀对前接词根音节依然有影响:两个降峰双元音在儿缀词环境下会单元音化[ei ou] >[e o]。

  关键词:杭州方言;双元音;清浊;调类合并;儿缀

  

ABSTRACT

  This thesis is a phonetic study on the Hangzhou Wu dialect. Its contents include (1) the vowels and diphthongs, (2) the voicing distinction of obstruents, (3) the near-mergers on citation tones, and (4) the -er suffix. 12 native speakers (6 males and 6 females) provided speech data. The introduction gives an outline of Hangzhou phonology and related isssues. The four chapters investigate the above-mentioned four topics. Conclusions are summarized as follows.

  Hangzhou monophthongs have a triangular distribution in the acoustic vowel plane. Acoustic results suggest that falling diphthongs are grouped with monophthongs, since the former has a static spectral target and the latter has a dynamic spectral target. However, rising diphthongs are vowel sequences.

  Hangzhou has a tripartite distinction of obstruents into voiceless unaspirated, voiceless aspirated, and voiced. But VOT cannot differentiate the voiced obstruents from their voiceless counterparts. In stead, the silent closure duration can. And breathiness was detected on the vowel throughout the entire syllable following the voiced stops, and throughout the first half of syllable duration following voiced affricates. The voiced stops /v z/ generally maintained voicing; and the weak fricative /v/ retained more voicing productions than the strong one /z/. There is no segment /ɦ/ detected from the waveform or spectrogram of speech signal. However, the detected breathinss on the /ɦ-/ syllable and the duration data of the /ɦ-/ syllable suggest the existence of /ɦ/. In other words, there is also a tripartite distinction of voicing between the onset-less, /h-/, and /ɦ-/ syllables.

  Tones are undergoing sound changing in Hangzhou: T1/T4 in a stage of merger in production and partial merge in perception, and T2/T5 in a stage of partial merger in production or in a tendency to merge but still distinguishable in perception. The production data are higly merged in young group, and there is a certain degree of merger in discrimination test too. The data show one tone is merging to the other one, rather than the two tones are changing into a new one.

  The palatograms and linguograms confirmed that the Hangzhou -er suffix is basically a lateral [l̩]. And the acoustic data suggest that the -er suffix is simultaneously a rhotic, as it triggers vowel rhoticization on the preceding syllable. The morphological process of -er suffixation in Hangzhou does not result in phonological resyllabification. The -er suffix is not a weakened syllable, and the multisyllabic words with -er suffixation are subject to general rules of tone sandhi in Hangzhou. However, the -er suffixation still has impact on the preceding syllable. In addition to the rhoticization of the vowel on the preceding syllable, it is observed that the two falling diphthongs are monophthongized, [ei ou] > [e o] respectively, under the process of -er suffixation.

  Key words: Hangzhou dialect, Diphthongs, Voicing distinction, Near-mergers, -er suffix

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