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刘桃:“有deV”与“没deV”式比较研究【汉语言文字学】

作者:刘桃 导师:王灿龙  来源:科研处  时间:2019-10-13

摘  要

  “没deV”式“有deV”式(de即“得”或者“的”)是日常口头交际中经常使用的结构形式。就我们的语感来说,其中的“de”似乎是具备指代功能,指代V的受事,如“没de吃”,但实际使用中,也有“这病有\没得治”“有\没的商量”等说法,“de”并不指代V的受事,是一种模糊表达。对这两个结构式的准确理解需要从历时角度考察其形成过程。“有deV”式与“没deV”式形式上是对称的,我们感兴趣的是其表达功能是否也是对称的。现有研究并未完全解答这些问题,两者的比较研究更少。本文尝试比较全面系统地考察“没deV”式和“有deV”式的用形成过程和用法,除绪论和结语外,全文分四个部分:

  第一部分,利用《汉语动词用法词典》《现代汉语词典》(第7版)对进入“有\没deV”的V的情况进行量化统计。考察显示,只有不到50%的能够独立充当谓语表义具体的单音节动词能进入这两个结构式,离合词和近词习语可以以离析形式进入。就语义来说,部分强持续性动词、忍受类动词和心理动词只能进入“有deV”式,而不能进入“没deV”式。两者搭配上的不对称显示出了功能上的差异。

  第二部分,考察“没deV”式“有deV”式的历时情况。两者在历时形成上有共性,“de”之所以出现在“有\没”与V之间,关键步骤是“没得”“有得”本身词汇化为相当于“没”“有”的词,“没deV”式“有deV”式是在“没得”“有得”构成的连动式中形成的。其两种表义“有\无N可V”“能\不能V”之间也存在关联,与“有”字连动式的特点有关。“的”对“得”的替换也表明“得”本身无实义,与“无得V”中的能性助动词有差异,语言事实不支持已有研究提出的“没deV”式直接来源于“无得V”的假设。

  第三部分,综合讨论两个结构式的不对称性,主要体现在分布、使用频率和表达功能上。其背后的理据与“有”“无”的基本语义特点紧密相关。

  第四部分,着重讨论“没deV”式下位格式“没的说”。言说动词的特殊性使得“没的说”成为一个表达说话人主观态度的评价标记,但当其用于命题、事件和事物时有不同的表现,形成了肯定情态\显而易见—积极评价\高程度义的功能配对。

  本文在前人研究成果的基础上对进入“没deV”式和“有deV”式的V进行了量化统计,分析发现,进入“有deV”式中的V有表“大量义”的功能。在全面考察与之相关的“无得”“没得”“有得”用法后,认为已有研究提出的“没deV”直接来源于“无得V”的假设不符合语言事实。我们认为词汇化了的“没得”“有得”形成的“有”字连动式是“有\没deV”形成的关键。这既可以解释前人所说“有\没de”的指代受事的功能,也可以解释为什么指代对象不限于受事,还可以解释“有deV”大量义的由来。

  关键词:“没deV”式 “有deV”式 V的准入 历时考察 不对称性 “没的说”

  

ABSTRACT

  The constructions “meide(没de)V” and “youde(有de)V”(“de”stands for “得”or“的”) are commonly used in oral communication. As native speakers of Chinese, we can tell that “de” seems to refer to the patient of the V, but some expressions like “zhebingyou\meidezhi(这病有\没得治)” and “you\meideshangliang(有\没得商量)” indicate that “de” is not necessarily related to patients of the V.“meide V” and “youde V” are constructions with vague relation between forms and meanings, which requires thorough investigation to their historical evolution process to clarify. While “youde V” and “youde V” share the parallel forms, what we are more interested in is whether they share parallel functions. Former researches have not given all answers to these questions yet, let alone studying these two constructions comparatively. This paper aims to study these two constructions systematically and comprehensively , especially focusing on how they evolve and what they are. In addition to Introduction and Conclusion, this paper includes the following four parts:

  In the first part, with a statistic research, we found that only less than 50% of Vs from HanYuDongCiYongFaCiDian can be used in these two constructions. these Vs are characterized with “being predicates separately” “with a specific meaning” “with one syllable”. V-o separable-words and idioms can enter “youde V” and “meide V” only in separable forms. In terms of semantic features,some continuous verbs, passive verbs and psych-verbs can only be used in “youde V”, which we believe indicates the special functions of “youde V”.

  In the second part, we have explored how “youde V” and “meide V” evolve to condensed constructions. We found that these two constructions share the similar evolving path, the most important step of which is “meide(没得)” and “youde(有得)”are lexicalized as a word. “meide V” and “youde V” are condensed because of the omission of the objects of “meide”and “youde” in the sentences with serial verbs,the first one of which is “you(有)”。“youde V” and “youde V” hold a basic meaning “not having \ having something to V”, which suggests the features of serial-verb sentences with the first verb “you (有)”. The fact that the non-meaning “de(的)” substituted “de(得)” in the history provides adverse evidence for the assumption that “meide V” evolves from “wude(无得)V” made by former researches.

  In the third part, we aim to discuss the differences between “youde V” and “meide V” in terms of distributions, frequencies and functions. what behind the differences is basic meaning of “you(有)” and “wu(无)”.

  In the fourth part, we focus on a special construction among members of “meide V”, which is “meide说”. “meide说” is a subjective marker with a feature of “obvious”, which can not only affirm a propositions, an event, but also show positive attitudes towards an attribute of an object. That’s because the speaking word “shuo说” is commonly used to express what people think.

  In conclusion, this paper has made a statistic research on Vs used in “meide V” and “youde V” and analyzed Vs’ syntactic and semantic features and found that “youde V” holds a special meaning “the action or event expressed by the V will last for a long time or happen many times”. Based on a comprehensive investigation of series of related words like “wude(无得)” “meide(没得)” “youde(有得)”, we argue that no evidences can verify the assumption that “meide V” is originated from “wude(无得) V” . On the contrary, we have found evidences for the assumption that “youde V” and “meide V” originate from serial-verb sentences with the first verb “youde(有得)” “meide(没得)”, which can not noly explain why “meide(V)” and “youde(V)” can refer to patients and other semantic roles, but also explain why “youde V” holds a special meaning.

  KEY WORDS: “meide V” ,“youde V” ,Vs’ syntactic and semantic features, historic investigation, asymmetry, “meide说”

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