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王莹:从语气副词到限定副词—以“祇”“适”“唯”为例【汉语言文字学专业】

作者:王莹 导师:李明  来源:科研处  时间:2018-10-21

摘 要

  语气副词是限定副词的重要语义来源。先秦语气副词“祇”“适”于魏晋南北朝完成了这一语义演变过程;“唯”则于春秋末期演变为限定副词。

  “祇”“祗”二字在商周时期,字形尚未分化,文献中常相互混用。隋唐以后出现多个音相同、形相近的异体字,都可用作语气副词,强调其后谓语成分,义为“正好、恰恰”。魏晋南北朝时期,“祇”完成了由语气副词到限定副词的语义演变过程,并逐渐被“只”字替代,在句中作状语,多限定其后谓词性成分,义为“只、仅仅”。唐五代时,重又发展出表确认的语义。

  “适”“啻”在商周出土文献中,字形相同。“适”本义为动词,演变为语气副词,表示“正好、恰好”义,并于魏晋南北朝时期,进一步发展出限定用法,义为“只、仅仅”。限定副词“适”作状语,多限定其后谓词性成分。

  “唯”最早由语气副词演变为限定副词。“唯”在甲骨文中作语气副词,强调其后主语或谓语。西周以后,“唯”在谓语NP前,进一步表强调、确认,可理解为“是、为”。“唯”位于主语NP前时,明显表示限定义。此外,在“唯宾是动”式以及语义正反对举的并列复句中,“唯”的限定义更加明显。春秋末期,限定副词“唯”就已经产生,到汉魏时期仍在使用。

  先秦“祇”“适”“唯”,是语气副词演变为限定副词的典型例证,演变路径以及动因机制大致相同。总体看来,“祇”“适”都是由“正恰”义演变为限定义,且多限定谓词性成分;“唯”由强调语气演变为限定义,多限定体词性成分。唐以后,限定副词“适”“唯”消失,“只”字替换“祇”,进一步发展限定用法,成为近现代汉语中最常用的限定副词。

  关键词:语气副词;限定副词;语义演变

ABSTRACT

  The modal adverbs is one of the most important semantic origins of the definitive adverbs. The modal adverbs “zhi”(祇) ”shi”(适) before Qin Dynasty had changed into the definitive adverbs at the end of the Middle Ancient Chinese, and another modal adverb “wei”(唯) had achieved this semantic change at the end of the Chunqiu period.

  “zhi”(祇) and “zhi”(祗) had the same character pattern in Shang and Zhou Dynasties, and were often used in the same syntax and semantics structures. After Tang Dynasty, some variants with the same phonology occured which could be used as modal adverbs as “zhi”(祇) that emphasized the predicate after it. We could interpreted “zhi” as “just”. In the Middle Ancient Chinese, “zhi” had achieved the semantic change from the modal adverb to the definitive adverb, and was replaced by “zhi”(只) gradually. “zhi”(只) was used as the adverbial in a sentence and definited the predicate after it, interpreted as “only”. At Tang Dynasty, “zhi”(只) rechanged to the modal adverb with the mood of “comfirm”.

  “shi”(适) “chi”(啻) had the same character pattern in Shang and Zhou Dynasties. The modal adverb “shi”(适)” stemed from the verb, interpreted as “just”. In the Middle Ancient Chinese, it changed to the definitive adverb, interpreted as “only”. The definitive adverb “shi”(适) was used as the adverbial in a sentence and definited the predicate after it.

  “wei”(唯) was the first one which changed to the definitive adverb from the modal adverb. “wei”(唯) was used to emphasis the subject or predicate in the oracle bones inscriptions. After Zhou Dynasty, “wei”(唯) was used before NP predicate as a modal adverb to emphasis or conform the predicate, interpreted as “only”. “wei”(唯) was used before NP subject as a definitive adverb. In addition, when “wei”(唯) in the constructure of “唯宾是动” and a complex sentence with two opposite meaning, it was a definitive adverb distinctly. From Chunqiu Dynasty to Han and Wei Dynasties, “wei”(唯) was used as the definitive adverb continuously.

  In the Old Ancient Chinese, “zhi”(祇) “shi”(适) “wei”(唯) were the representative definitive adverbs from the modal adverbs. They had the same path and mechanism of semantic change. Overoll, “zhi”(祇) and “shi”(适) were stemed from “just”, and definited the VP in the sentence; while “wei”(唯) changed to the definitive adverb from the emphatic particle, and was used to definite the NP in the sentence. After Tang Dynasty, “shi”(适) “wei”(唯) did not be used as the definitive adverbs, and “zhi”(只) became the most typical definitive adverb in Modern Chinese.

  KEY WORDS: modal adverb; definitive adverb; semantic change

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