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毕晓燕:基于满汉对照的清代兼汉满语会话教材语言专题研究【汉语言文字学】

作者:毕晓燕 导师:祖生利  来源:科研处  时间:2018-10-21

摘 要

  清代兼汉满语会话教材是研究清代满汉语言接触的重要材料。本文以清代兼汉满语会话教材及其语言为考察和研究的对象,着眼于其汉语部分出现的某些特殊语法现象,运用满汉对照,重点探讨其所反映的旗人汉语里“来着”、“是呢”这两个比较有代表性的满语干扰特征的使用情况和底层来源,并联系明清汉语自身情形,说明其对清代汉语特别是北京官话所造成的可能影响。

  论文首先对清代兼汉满语会话教材进行了文献学研究,对其在清代中期出现的社会历史背景进行了说明,并重点讨论了《清文指要》为代表的“话条百则”系列的会话教材与传世的清代早期满语话条《一百条》的承继关系。

  在对清代兼汉满语会话教材进行文献学研究的基础上,本文选取了其中具有代表性的《清文启蒙》、《清文指要》及《续编兼汉清文指要》三种兼汉满语会话教材为研究对象,利用其满汉对照语料,考察语码转换过程中满语和汉语语法成分的对应情况。重点调查了汉语部分里句末助词“来着”和“是呢”与满语语法成分的对应关系,指出句末时体助词“来着”主要是满语特殊动词bi的陈述式过去时形式bi-he及其所构成的相关时体构式的反映,句末语气助词“是呢”是满语动词祈使式特别是第二人称祈使式-cina的反映。“来着”所表达的语法意义,包括一般过去时、过去完成体、过去进行体和持续体等众多不同的时体意义,其核心与基本语法意义则是表示过去时;“是呢”主要表达祈请、劝止、听凭等情态意义,同时也是对满语动词第二人称祈使式后缀-cina的直接借音。

  在此基础上,本文还考察了旗人汉语里句末助词“来着”和“是呢”这两个典型的满语干扰特征在清代同期及稍后《红楼梦》、《儿女英雄传》等旗人文学作品中的使用情况和不同表现,藉此进一步探讨有关清代旗人汉语对北京官话的影响问题。调查和分析的结果表明,清代中期以后经由同旗人汉语的接触,句末时体助词“来着”已进入到北京官话并为其所接受,逐渐取代自身固有的事态助词“来”,成为其时体系统的一个重要成分,一直使用至今;“是呢”也并未真正从清代后期旗人汉语口语里消失,则是以“才是呢”(才是+是呢)这样的满汉混合叠加形式进入到北京官话里面,并与明清以来自身固有的句末情态助词“才是”、“才好”同时使用。

  关键词: 清代兼汉满语会话教材        语言接触        旗人汉语        北京官话        句末时体助词“来着”        句末语气助词“是呢/才是呢”

ABSTRACT

  Manchu conversation textbooks with Mandarin paraphrase is an important material to study the contact between Manchu and Chinese in Qing Dynasty. Based on Manchu conversation textbooks with Mandarin paraphrase, the paper focuses on some special grammatical phenomena, uses the theory of contrast between Manchu and Chinese, reveals the main sources in Manchu of laizhe、shine, which are the Manchu interference features found in the Manchurian Chinese, and explains the influence on Beijing Mandarin contacting the situation of Chinese in Ming and Qing Dynasty .

  The paper conductes a philological study of Manchu conversation textbooks with Mandarin paraphrase, explaines its social and historical background in the middle period of the Qing Dynasty, and focuses on the relationship between “Hua Tiao Bai Ze” represented by the Qing Wen Zhi Yao and Yi Bai Tiao produced in the early Qing Dynasty.

  Based on the philological study of Manchu conversation textbooks with Mandarin paraphrase, the paper selectes three representative examples of Qing Wen Qi Meng, Qing Wen Zhi Yao, and Xu Bian Jian Han Qing Wen Zhi Yao for research, uses its Manchu and Chinese collational materials, and investigate the corresponding conditions of Manchu and Chinese grammatical components in the code-switching process. This paper focuses on the correspondence between the adverbs laizhe、shine in the Chinese part of the sentence and the grammatical components of Manchu, and points out that laizhe in the end of the sentence mainly corresponding to the statement style past-time bi-he and the relevant time-body structures of the Manchu special verb bi, and that the end of the sentence modal particle shine corresponding to the imperative of Manchu verbs, especially the second-person imperative suffix “-cina”. The grammatical meanings of laizhe includes many different meanings, such as the general past tense, the past completed body, the past progress body, and continuous body. The core and basic grammatical meanings represents the past tense; shine mainly expresses modal meanings, such as prayer, persuasion, allowance. It is also a direct loan to the second-person imperative suffix -cina of Manchu verb.

  The paper also investigates the two typical Manchu interfering features at the end of the sentence in the Manchurian Chinese in Hou Lou Meng and Er Nü Ying Xiong Zhuan, and explores the influence of Manchurian Chinese on Beijing Mandarin.

  The results of the survey and analysis show that laizhe enteres the Beijing Mandarin after the middle period of the Qing Dynasty through contact with the Manchurian Chinese, and gradually replaces the particle lai. As an important component of its time system, it has been used until now; shine does not really disappeare from the Manchurian Chinese, but enter the Manchurian Chinese by the mixed superposition form caishine (caishi+shine), which is used with the inherent components caishi、caihao since Ming and Qing dynasties at the same time.

  KEY WORDS: Manchu conversation textbooks with Mandarin paraphrases in Qing Dynasty language contact Manchurian Chinese Beijing Mandarin laizhe shine

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