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薛时蓉:汉语表达时间义的成分及构式研究【语言学及应用语言学】

————以“有一天”“有所”“动词+[tə]+处所名词”为例

作者:薛时蓉 导师:唐正大  来源:科研处  时间:2018-10-21

摘 要

  汉语的时间系统既包括汉语表达的时间意义,也包括汉语用于表达这些时间意义的形式。这意味着,我们既可以从形式的层面,也可以从语义的层面对汉语时间系统进行研究。就汉语分析语的性质而言,针对语法标记进行形式研究难以反映其时间表达的全貌。就语言类型学的价值而言,采取语义视角对汉语时间系统进行分析有助于无时态语言之间的跨语言比较及进一步的共性归纳。由此,本文从语义的角度切入,对汉语的时间范畴进行研究。

  近年来,越来越多的研究者对汉语如何在零标记语句中表达时间义进行探索,并将这些表达手段归纳为实词、迂回形式,具有时间关联的主从句、具有时间呼应关系的语篇,以及可用于推断时间义的语用规则,但其中,蕴涵、隐涵时间义的成分及结构尚未受到充分的关注。鉴于这一点,本研究以承认汉语中存在蕴涵、隐涵时间义的成分、结构为前提,对作小句时间状语的存在句式“有一天”、副词“有所”、北京话中构式“动词+[t?]+处所名词”的时间意义及其产生机制分别进行描写与解释,旨在拓宽汉语时间范畴研究的范围,并提供相对完整的个案研究作为支持。

  本研究主要分为两个部分。

  第一部分总结了关于汉语时间义表达的已有研究及主要分歧。首先,关于应从语义还是形式的角度对汉语时间范畴进行研究存在不同的意见。为了描写汉语时间系统的充分性,解释汉语已有视点体标记使用及功能的充分性,语言类型学中对无时态语言深入比较研究的需要,本文从语义的层面上界定时间范畴。其次,我们总结了汉语时间表达的主要相关研究,并将其归纳为五个方面:其一,研究者对视点体标记“了”、“着”、“过”的研究;其二,研究者对情状体的研究及分类;其三,研究者对表达时间意义的实义成分如时间副词、名词,迂回形式的研究;其四,研究者对零标记语句中时间表达的研究;其五,研究者对蕴涵或隐涵时间义成分的研究。在第三节中,我们介绍了本文所采取的理论视角及研究方法,即运用Comrie(1976)提出的“蕴涵”、“隐涵”概念考察汉语中非表时成分及结构的时间义。

  第二部分以个案研究的形式对汉语中蕴涵或隐涵时间义的成分及构式“有一天”、“有所”、“动词+[t?]+处所名词”分别进行研究。

  首先,我们指出“有一天”隐涵过去时间指称,其过去时间指称可受表达过去时间指称的成分允准,也可因与表达未来时间指称的成分共现而取消。此外,我们对“有一天”所修饰的宾语小句与作为主要动词的叙实动词不兼容的现象进行描写与解释。

  其次,我们对副词“有所”时体意义的产生、演化及其机制提出解释。该部分指出,“有所”首先对其后动词性成分的前置受事进行量化限制,当受事受到显著量化成分限制或排斥量化限制时,“有所”转向对其后动词性成分所表行为、状态的限制,从而具有“小量”义,蕴涵完成体义。此外,目前已出现了少量用例,允许行为、状态受到显著量化限制,“有所”因而进一步演化表完整体义,对事件施加限制。该部分还指出,量化成分限制功能的转移是跨语言可观察到的现象。

  其三,我们对现代北京话中构式“动词+[t?]+处所名词”中“[t?]”的功能进行分析,指出其不是纯粹的时体标记。当其采用动作义动词,其前论元为施事,构式具有完整体义;当其采用“动作·状态”复合语义动词,其前论元为客体,构式具有状态义,在特定的语境中,动词可能采取“动作”义,构式具有完整体义。由此,表达时间意义的是“动词+[t?]+处所名词”而非附缀“[t?]”。

  以上述三个个案研究为例,我们认为,关于汉语时间表达的研究宜纳入蕴涵、隐涵时间意义的成分及构式,从而更为准确地反映汉语时间意义表达的全貌。

  关键词:汉语时间范畴;蕴涵义;隐涵义

ABSTRACT

  Not only does Chinese time system include temporal meanings expressed in Chinese, but also contains markers employed to express time-related concepts. That is to say, the study on time system of Chinese can be conducted in terms of meaning or form. Given that Chinese is an analytic language, which means it mainly depends on lexical words and periphrastic expressions to convey grammatical meaning, the study only aimed at grammatical markers cannot fully represents Chinese temporal system. Secondly, from the perspective of linguistic typology, the semantic insight is needed to further cross-linguistic comparison among tenseless languages, based on which more generalities will probably be discovered. Therefore, the present study adopts semantic understanding of time category of Chinese.

  In recent years, there has been an increasing number of researchers centering on Chinese temporal expressions such as adverbials and modal verbs. However, elements and structures implicating or implying time-related meanings have not achieved much attention. This study emphasizes the importance of expressions with implications or implicatures related to time in Chinese and is composed of three case studies on ‘You Yi-tian’, ‘You Suo’ and ‘verb+[t?]+ location noun’. Not only do case studies contained in the present paper discuss temporal meanings of expressions mentioned above, but also are aimed to widen the scope of study on Chinese time system.

  The present study consists of two parts.

  The first part concludes main studies of Chinese temporal category and clarify relevant concepts. First and foremost, it is stated that there has been a controversy over in which way the time system of Chinese should be observed. To achieve the adequacy of description and explanation, the semantic perspective is adopted. Secondary, main studies of expressions of time in Chinese are classified into five classes: studies aimed at grammatical markers and situation aspect, studies centered on lexical words and studies mainly focused on means by which sentences with no time-related elements expressing temporal reference or aspectual meaning and, finally, expressions indirectly conveying time information. In the end of the first chapter, the main theory and methodology is stated.

  The second part contains three separate case studies of ‘You Yi-tian’, ‘You Suo’ and ‘verb+[t?]+ location noun’, which implicate or imply temporal meanings.

  At first, it is pointed out that ‘You Yi-tian’ implies the past time reference, which can be allowed or canceled by various elements. In addition, the attempts are also made to explain the mechanism leading to incompatibility of the clause modified by ‘You Yi-tian’ and the factive verb as main verb.

  Secondary, a tentative explanation of the production and evolution of aspectual meaning of ‘You Suo’ is given. This part is based on the theory that quantifier adverbials transfer to delimit another element when the element which should have been constrained has been quantified by other elements. On the other side, the similar evolution is observable cross-linguistically.

  Third, an analyse of ‘[t?]’ in construction ‘verb+[t?]+location noun’ in Modern Peking dialect is given. It is demonstrated that the aspectual meaning is produced by the construction rather ‘[t?]’, that is to say, ‘[t?]’ is not a grammatical marker expressing temporal meaning but a clitic. The temporal meaning of the construction depends on lexical elements instead of ‘[t?]’.

  According to the discussion on three expressions related to time, it is safe to draw the conclusion that studies on more elements and constructions implicating or implying temporal information should be contained in the study of temporal system in Chinese, to further discover the Chinese time system.

  KEY WORDS: Chinese time system; implication; implicature

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