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向婷:焦点重音对湖南省麻阳话声调系统的影响【语言学及应用语言学】

作者:向婷 导师:熊子瑜  来源:科研处  时间:2016-10-02

摘 要

  焦点重音是语言学界广泛关注的问题。关于汉语普通话的焦点重音的研究已经相当成熟,对汉语其他方言的焦点重音的研究近年来也在不断兴起,但由于汉语方言众多,还有很多方言尚未进入学者视野。湖南省麻阳话的焦点重音研究目前基本上还是空白。本文通过声学实验对麻阳话单字调以及焦点重音进行分析。一方面,本文旨在弥补麻阳话焦点重音研究的空白,为以更深入地研究提供参考;另一方面,本文试图通过对麻阳方言焦点重音的研究从而能够对汉语焦点重音理论及其类型学研究提供一些新的素材和研究思路。

  本研究主要考察焦点重音对湖南省麻阳话四个声调的影响,全文分为四章。

  第一章是绪论,包含两方面内容:一、介绍麻阳话的地理位置以及以往对麻阳话的研究,这些研究主要包括麻阳话的方言归属区、对麻阳话的音系研究等;二、介绍焦点重音以及普通话与粤语方面的研究成果。本文主要参考普通话和粤语等有关方面的研究,而之所以参考普通话的焦点重音研究,一方面是因为普通话跟麻阳话都是属于官话系统,有一定的相似性,另一方面是因为学界对普通话的焦点重音研究比较成熟;之所以参考粤语的焦点重音研究,是因为粤语有“阴平[55]、阴去[33]和阳去[22]”三个平调,麻阳话有“阳 平[213]、上声[323]和去声[45]”三个升调,声调系统中有三个相似调型的声调在焦点重音的影响下会有怎么样的表现,值得比较与研究。

  第二章是麻阳话单字调实验分析。通过对 3000 多个单字语音材料进行时长和音高数据的提取分析,可以发现麻阳话的单字调系统有四个声调,分别为阴平[55]、阳平[213]、上声[323]和去声[45]。在三个升调中,去声在调阶、调型、调长等方面与阳平和上声有较明显区别,去声位于声调系统的高音域,且时长相比于阴平、上声较短,而阴平、上声位于低音域,时长都要长于去声;其中阳平、上声比较容易发生混淆,因为二者在调长上几乎没有区别,而且都是先降后升的曲折调,调型相似。

  第三章是关于焦点重音对麻阳话四声的影响,主要分析的是音高和时长这两个超音质成分。本文数据表明在麻阳话中,焦点重音对音高曲线的影响主要分为三个区域:焦点前声调的调域基本保持不变,音高上限和下限没有明显变化;焦点位置声调的调域扩展,高音点抬升,低音点的降低不明显,而阴平和去声(高音域声调)、阳平和上声(低音域声调)之间的相对格局保持不变;焦点后调域会被明显压缩,而主要压缩的是高音域和低音域之间的空白档以及阳平和上声之间的相对格局。从声调时长上来说,由于麻阳话声调时长不起区分作用,无长短调的对立,所以能够在语流中出现幅度较大的时长变化,焦点处音节的时长明显被拉长,而且无论处于焦点前、焦点或是焦点后位置,总是后字的时长大于前字的时长,这种时长的拉长是一种叠加性的拉长,即在非焦点位置,总是后字时长比前字时长长,由于受到焦点的影响,前字被拉长,而后字会被拉得更长。通过 SPSS 的判别分析,发现声学参数(包括音高、时长、调类、音域等数据)可以有效地对麻阳话的焦点重音位置进行较为准确地判别,能够有效区分焦点重音成分和焦点重音之后的成分。

  第四章是对整个论文的总结以及对相关问题的讨论。总结了单字调实验以及焦点重音实验。主要将普通话和麻阳话的音高骤降、以及粤语的无音高骤降现象进行比较分析。本文认为之所以麻阳话(或者普通话)会发生焦点后音高骤降,是因为麻阳话的声调格局给音高骤降提供了一个基础,即发生音高骤降之后,各个调类仍然能够保持较高的辨识度,而粤语之所以没有焦点后的音高骤降,是因为粤语声调系统中的三个平调[55]、[33]、[22]之间调型基本一致、调值比较相近,如果发生音高骤降,声调很有可能会失去辨识度。这也说明了字调尽管受到语调的影响,在语流中可能会发生一些调值上的变化,但仍然需要且能够保持一定的区分度,维持其基本特性从而实现辨义功能。

  关键词:麻阳话、单字调、焦点重音、音高、时长

Abstract

  Focus accent has gained widely attention from linguists. Researches on Mandarin focal accent are already fully developed. And studies of focus accent on other Chinese dialects are emerging in recent years. However, since there are so many dialects to study in China, many dialects in China are out of sight of scholars. And the study of the focus accent of Mayang dialect in Hunan province is basically blank. This research will analyze Mayang dialect monosyllabic tone and focus accent by the acoustic experiments. On one hand, this research aims to make up for the lack of study of Mayang dialect research and provide preparations for further study, on the other hand, it tries to rich the theory of focus accent by doing research on dialects.

  The subject of this dissertation is the effects of focus accent on the four tones of Mayang dialect in Hunan Province. The article is divided into three chapters.

  The first chapter is the introduction. Firstly, it introduces the geographical location of Mayang and the previous studies on the Mayang dialect. These efforts have been devoted to talkabout the dialect area that Mayang dialect belongs to and the phonological description of Mayang dialect. Secondly, it deals with the concept of focus accent and relevant studies of Chinese Mandarin and Cantonese. The reason why researches on Mandarin are referred to is that Mayang dialect and Mandarin are belonging to the similar dialect area. The reason for the reference of Cantonese focal accent is that Cantonese contains three static tone, Yin Ping [55], Yin Qu [33] and Yang Qu [22], while Mayang dialect, which also includes three rising tone, Yang Ping [213], Shang Sheng [323], and Qu Sheng [45], is similar in tone system which consisting of three similar tones. Whether there are analogous performances requires more comparisons and analysis.

  The second chapter is concentrated on acoustic study of Mayang dialect citation tone. By extracting duration and pitch data for a corpus which contains more than 3000 words, that there are four tones in Mayang dialect, Yin Ping [55], Yang Ping [213], Shang Sheng [323] and Qu Sheng [45]. There are two dynamic tones, a rising tone and a static tone in Mayang dialect. Qu Sheng is different from Yang Ping and Shang Sheng in pitch value, pitch contour and duration. Qu Sheng locates in the high register, while Yang Ping and Shang Sheng in low register. And the duration of Qu Sheng is shorter than Yang Ping and Shang Sheng. Yang Ping and Shang Sheng resemble each other in terms of their similar duration and pitch contour.

  The third chapter pays attention to the influence of focus accent on tone system of Mayang dialect, mainly about the fundamental frequency and duration of the dialect. There are three distinct focus-related pitch ranges: expanded in on-focus words, suppressed in post-focus words, and neutral in pre-focus words. The pitch range of on-focus words is expanded, with the rising high point of f0 and lowering the low point of f0, while the relative position of the high register and low register remain unchanged. It also shows that despite the influence of intonation, the tone will remain its feature. As for the duration, there is longer duration in on-focus words compared with post-focus words and pre-focus words. It also shows that post syllable has longer duration than front syllable in any situations. So the longer duration is additive. With the help of SPSS discriminant tree analysis, it has been found that acoustic parameters (including the pitch, length, tone, range and other data) can effectively forecast prosodic features of Mayang dialect, especially on focus position.

  The fourth chapter is the summary of the whole paper and the discussion of the related issues. Summarizes the acoustic study of Mayang dialect citation tone and the influence of focus accent on tone system of Mayang dialect. This study compares Mayang dialect with post-focus compression and Cantonese without post-focus compression. The reason why Mayang dialect (or Chinese Mandarin) has the post-focus compression is that the tone system provides a foundation for PFC. In other words, the four tones can still maintain identifications under post-focus compression, while the three tones in Cantonese are so close in pitch value that if there is a post-focus compression, they can hardly be distinguished.

  KEY WORDS:Mayang Dialect, Citation tone, Focus accent, Pitch, Duration

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